When launching a website, a company is faced with the fact that it needs hosting. They are offered by hundreds of providers – and it is not clear whose service is better. Let’s figure out what a great hosting server is.
What is hosting and how does it relate to a domain?
A great hosting server is a service in which the client rents part of the capacity or the entire server from the hosting provider. The site files will be stored there – pictures, text, videos, tables, and everything that is visible in google’s web browser. The hosting company also helps clients set up hosting, and protects files from cyberattacks, and physical media from fires or other incidents. In general, no site will work without hosting.
If desired, hosting can be organized on a home computer – but for this, it must be powerful enough, and the Internet must work around the clock. And if home hosting stops working, then the company’s website will stop accepting applications and it will suffer losses.
When the hosting provides space for site files, then the domain is the name and address where it will be found on the Internet. The domain consists of at least two levels: the first one indicates the geography of the site (“.com” and others for international ones), and the second one shows the name of the site ( “Google”). Second-level domains are unique, so you cannot register two sites at the same address. Hosting is connected after domain registration.
Behind the domain is an IP address – a code of eight or more digits with dots. When a user types in the site name, he actually sends a request to the server by IP address. The server then checks to see if there are site files at that address. If they are, the user receives a response from the server, and the site opens in the browser.
What is a great hosting server: type of host
Often the terms “hosting” and “server” are used interchangeably. But these are different concepts: hosting means renting the power of a computer, and a server is a computer. Usually, hostings are divided into four types. They differ in price, allocated capacity for the client, and additional settings.
Shared or virtual hosting
The cheapest and easiest service for website maintenance. The company provides one physical server for several clients and distributes the speed of incoming and outgoing Internet traffic between them. If one of the sites on such hosting is visited by thousands of users at the same time, then the rest of the sites will load more slowly. Therefore, this type of hosting is suitable for web resources with low traffic.
It is easier to manage such hosting, and the client does not need to understand site administration. At the same time, he will be able to use only those programs that the hoster has installed.
VPS (Virtual Private Server) and VDS (Virtual Dedicated Server) host more expensive services.
Part of the capacity is allocated from one physical server only for one client. It has no “neighbors” in hosting – so no one will be able to pull over part of the memory or traffic.
The client’s site will load slower only if the load falls on it: for example, a large number of users come or the administrator uploads files that are too heavy.VPS and VDS hostings differ in how server capacities are virtualized:
The OS (operating system) is virtualized in VPS – the client can configure it: for example, add a new user who will also get access to the hosting. In this case, the client cannot change the OS.
VDS hosting virtualizes part of the physical server – so the client can change the OS if it does not suit him. For example, it can replace the paid Windows Server with the free Ubuntu.
- Smart cloud hosting
It distributes files across multiple physical servers. Therefore, the client pays only for those resources that he uses at a particular moment. If a lot of users come to the site, then the hoster will increase the capacity – you will have to overpay. And if there are few users, then you can save and reduce power.
Cloud hosting usually has fewer settings than VPS servers. Hosters configure the OS themselves and do not give access to root files. In this case, the client can choose the operating system – for servers, the following are used:
- Windows Server,
Dedicated server colocation
The most expensive service – it provides the most capacity for the client. He rents the entire physical server and all resources will belong only to him. Another advantage is the maximum security of files because all data is physically stored in one place. This service is suitable for large online stores, social networks, and other complex projects.
You can install a program or an operating system on a dedicated server yourself – there are no restrictions. But for such purposes, you need to know how to manage the server. If there are no such skills, then you will have to learn them yourself or hire an administrator.
How to total choice hosting
You can choose a tariff from a hoster according to several criteria.
Paid or free. The price of the tariff depends on the capacity of servers and additional services. There are also free hostings – they give the lowest power and place ads on the sites. Therefore, free hosting is better to use for test projects. If you need to launch an online store, it is better to immediately choose a paid service: VPS, cloud hosting, or a dedicated server.
Hard disk format
Now hosters offer two formats: HDD and SSD. The first one is cheaper, but files are downloaded from it more slowly. SSDs are more expensive, but they load files several times faster.
The amount of main memory determines how many files a site can support. At the same time, there are restrictions on media files in the tariff. For example, out of 20 GB of memory, a client can only upload photos and videos to 5 GB. Another limitation is inodes (inodes): they determine the number of files and folders that can be created on a disk.
RAM and processor
The more memory, and cores and the higher the frequency of the processor hosting provides, the faster the site will load. But the fare will also be more expensive.
A content management system, or content management system, is an interface that allows you to upload pictures, videos, and text, and change the layout of web pages.
The most popular CMS:
CMS support is usually indicated in the tariff. If the hosting supports MySQL, then WordPress will definitely work on it.
Legislative restrictions. Some sites collect personal data of users: names, email addresses, and phone numbers. The owners of these sites are considered personal data operators – they must store files on Russian servers. Otherwise, the site owner may be fined by Roskomnadzor.
Therefore, even with Russian hosting (Reg.ru, Timecweb, Sprinthost, and others), you need to check where the servers are located: in the country or abroad. This is written in the description of the tariff or in the contract.
If the site does not collect personal data, it can be hosted on a hinterland hosting.
Additional services. These include:
- protection against DDoS attacks,
- checking mail for spam and viruses,
- mail web interface
- access to the site via FTP,
- file backup and other services.
Additional services are provided by all types of hosting, except for shared ones. One of such hosting servers is Hostinger.
How to upload a website to exact hosting
In order for the site to appear on the Internet, you need to link the hosting and domain, and then upload the files. The download may vary – different hosting and domain registrars have different interfaces.
Usually, in the hosting control panel, there is a “Domains” section in the form of a tab or button. There will be a field where you can copy the domain. Next, in the hosting control panel, you need to select the folder where the site files will be stored. If the first site is loaded, you can select the default folder. For new sites, you need to specify a new folder.
Now you need to specify the hosting DNS addresses for the domain: they can be found in the section using. They might look like this:
Then we go to the site where the domain is registered. In your personal account, select the section with DNS addresses and indicate all the addresses that were on the hosting site. Updating DNS data takes from several hours to a couple of days.
It remains to upload files for the site
In the hosting control panel, you need to go to the “Domains” section again, select the downloaded address and open the file manager. In the interface, it can be displayed as an icon with a folder.
In the file manager, you need to open the folder with the site name (for example, “newlive.com”), and then the “www” folder. The site files are loaded into it: they can be saved in a zip archive so as not to be copied one by one.
If you need to transfer the site to another hosting, then you need to go through the whole algorithm again: rewrite the DNS addresses in the domain control panel, download all site files from the old hosting and transfer them to the new one.